Cloud IT as an Architectural Style

Martin Kuppinger from Kuppinger Cole, known from the excellent European Identity Conference, wrote a very interesting article on Cloud Computing: “It’s not about the cloud – it’s about Cloud IT“.

But the more you dive into the topic of cloud computing it becomes obvious that this cloudy thing of “cloud” (usually associated with the Internet and things which are provided there) isn’t the key thing. The key to success is that companies understand the value of Cloud IT.

What does this mean? Cloud IT stands for consequently using cloud principles in IT – and in every part of IT, not only for consuming some external services. That includes

  • well defined services (SLAs!!!)
  • a consistent service management across all services, regardless of where they are running (and, based on that, consistent approaches to cloud governance)
  • applications which are agnostic of where they are run or which hardware resources are available – there have to be parameters which might limit the ability to run applications everywhere and the application has to accept the currently available hardware resources but as well should understand that these resources can change dynamically

Defining everything in IT as services in a consistent manner is a fundamental change and the foundation for a flexible use of cloud services. Once you have made that move you can decide (based on parameters of a service) which service provider (internal or external) you will use. Thus, the first step is making your IT “cloud-ready”, e.g. moving towards a Cloud IT. Without that, using cloud services will always be sort of tactical and not strategic.

On the last day of the 2009 edition of the European Identity Conference I participated in a workshop on Cloud computing and Identity with Martin. In the workshop I told Martin that for me, an architect, the most interesting aspect of Cloud Computing is not the ability to house your application logic externally but a renewed and global attention for various architectural patterns.

The underlying current for most of these patterns is a high degree of abstraction and transparency combined with simplicity (not the bad kind, the good kind). In other words: keep it simple, abstract away everything that is not part of your application and don’t care about the environment you are running in (for instance network transparency). The advantages of following these principles are becoming more obvious due to Cloud Computing: scalability, continuity, flexibility, reusability …

Those patterns can equally be applied to classical internal IT. Yet, you rarely see this except at the application level. Cloud computing forces you into this thinking, traditional IT however gives you enough escape hatches. Not in the least because vendors keep on selling solutions that stifle innovation. As a simple example you can take the infamous network transparency. Demonstrated over and over again in the last 3 decades to be achievable (see for example the Inferno operating system) yet most commercial solutions still expose the network to you. So many good “inventions” but so little uptake from vendors.

In conclusion: I can only join Martin in his advice: get your IT cloud ready, move to a Cloud IT. Even if you will never ever actually move to the cloud. And more importantly, put pressure on your vendors to force them to innovate!

[edited: corrected some typos and grammar]

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We care about you … sort of …

Some companies insist on letting you know that the mail you just received from them, has been properly scanned, dissected and cleansed before it reached your mailbox.

Sometimes it can go wrong however:

Internal Virus Database is out-of-date.
Checked by AVG.
Version: 7.5.524 / Virus Database: 270.4.1/1517 – Release Date: 24/06/08 20:41

I wonder if I should delete the mail or not. As a juice extra, somewhere else in the mail they refer to their company as “Your IT Reference on the Web !“.

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Challenge Questions … a tale from reality

Last weekend I was in a shop buying a new subscription for my mobile phone. As usual I was hit by an avalanche of questions asking for my name, address, shoe size … One question in particular caught my attention …

The shop attendant asked me “for a password”, a password I could use if I couldn’t go to one of their shops and had to call their call center. By supplying the password to the call center they could verify it was really me.

I don’t know about anyone else but I personally call my mobile subscription provider about once every 5 years. The service they offer just works, rarely needs change and if it does need change, they often have a website to help you out. Chances are high I would have completely forgotten the password by the time I had to call them.

The conversation with the shop attendant went like this:

  • Attendant: “You have to choose a password, a password you can use when calling our call center
  • Me: “Oh … hmm … how many times can I guess when I am calling in?
  • Attendant (realizing I was afraid of forgetting the password): “We will give you hints if you forgot it
  • Attendant (still aiming to give excellent customer service): “People often choose the PIN code of their credit or debit card ...”
  • Attendant (now realizing not everyone liked this idea): “… but of course you don’t have to, you can pick any word

At that moment I tried not to, at least not obviously, show my emotions about this conversation.

This method to verify who is calling is flawed to say the least. Due to the very low frequency people have to call in, most people will have forgotten their password. Unless of course they used their PIN code, which they hopefully still remember. Since call center employees can obviously read the password (they need to verify it) they have clear text, and probably unnoticed, access to a lot of PIN numbers. Do I need to add that call centers employees are not the most loyal employees you can find?

The fact they give hints when you call in, is stupid as well. Not only do they admit their system is flawed by design, they also help in under mining it themselves. Imagine this conversation when a hacker calls in:

  • Hacker: “Hi, I am John and I need to change my subscription plan
  • Call Center: “Hi John, could you give us your password please
  • Hacker: “Oh, I forgot it … could you give a hint?
  • Call Center: “It looks like your birth year or perhaps your PIN code
  • Hacker (after a quick look on Facebook): “My year of birth? That should be 1975.
  • Call Center: “Sorry John, that is not correct, perhaps it’s your PIN code?
  • Hacker: “No, I would never give my PIN code to you, could you give me the first number? Perhaps I recognize it
  • Call Center (re-assured it could not be his PIN code): “It starts with 5 John

I am sure someone much more experienced in social engineering (I have virtually none) can get someone’s PIN code this way.

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